|CV. SUMBER ASIA, PT. ANEKA TUNA INDONESIA, PT. BALI MAYA PERMAI, PT. CITRARAJA AMPAT CANNING, PT. DEHO CANNING COMPANY, PT. GEMA ISTA RAYA, PT. INTERNATIONAL ALLIANCE FOOD INDONESIA, PT. JUIFA INTERNATIONAL FOODS, PT. MAYA MUNCAR, PT. MUNCHAR, PT. REX CANNING ***, PT. SAMUDERA MANDIRI SENTOSA, PT. SUMBER YALASAMUDRA|
Tuna is an important commercial fish. The International Seafood Sustainability Foundation (ISSF) compiled a detailed scientific report on the state of global tuna stocks in 2009, which includes regular updates. According to the ISSF, the most important species for commercial and recreational tuna fisheries are yellowfin (Thunnus albacares), bigeye (T. obesus), bluefin (T. thynnus, T. orientalis, and T. macoyii), albacore (T. alalunga), and skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis).
Besides for edible purposes, many species of tuna are caught frequently as a game fish, often for recreation or for contests in which money is awarded depending on how heavy the fish weighs in at. Larger specimens are notorious for putting up a fight while hooked, and have been known to injure people who try to catch them, as well as damage their equipment.
Canned tuna was first produced in 1903, quickly becoming popular. Tuna is canned in edible oils, in brine, in water, and in various sauces. Tuna may be processed to be "chunked" or "flaked". In the United States, 52% of canned tuna is used for sandwiches; 22% for salads; and 15% for casseroles and dried, packaged meal mixes.
In the United States, only Albacore can legally be sold in canned form as "white meat tuna"; in other countries, yellowfin is also acceptable. While in the early 1980s canned tuna in Australia was most likely Southern bluefin, as of 2003 it was usually yellowfin, skipjack, or tongol (labelled "northern bluefin").
As tunas are often caught far from where they are processed, poor interim conservation can lead to spoilage. Tuna is typically gutted by hand, and later pre-cooked for prescribed times of 45 minutes to three hours. The fish are then cleaned and filleted, canned, and sealed, with the dark lateral blood meat often separately canned for pet food. The sealed can is then heated under pressure (called retort cooking) for 2 to 4 hours. This process kills any bacteria, but retains the histamine that can produce rancid flavors. The international standard sets the maximum histamine level at 200 milligrams per kilogram.